Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Brief History of Cod Fishing

Brief History of Cod Fishing The cods importance to American history is undeniable. It was cod that attracted Europeans to North America for short-term fishing trips and eventually enticed them to stay. The cod became one of the most sought-after fish in the North Atlantic, and it was its popularity that caused its enormous decline and the precarious situation today. Native Americans Long before Europeans arrived and discovered America, Native Americans fished along its shores, using hooks they made from bones and nets made from natural fibers. Cod bones such as otoliths (an ear bone) are plentiful in Native American middens, indicating they were an important part of the Native American diet. Earliest Europeans The Vikings and Basques were some of the first Europeans to travel to the coast of North America and harvest and cure cod. Cod was dried until it was hard, or cured using salt so that it was preserved for a long period of time. Eventually, explorers such as Columbus and Cabot discovered the New World. Descriptions of the fish indicate that cod were as big as men, and some say that fishermen could scoop the fish out of the sea in baskets. Europeans concentrated their cod fishing efforts in Iceland for awhile, but as conflicts grew, they began fishing along the coast of Newfoundland and what is now New England. Pilgrims and Cod In the early 1600s, John Smith charted out New England. When determining where to flee, the Pilgrims studied Smiths map and were intrigued by the label Cape Cod. They were determined to profit from fishing, although according to Mark Kurlansky, in his book Cod: a Biography of the Fish That Changed the World, they knew nothing about fishing, (p. 68) and while the Pilgrims were starving in 1621, there were British ships filling their holds with fish off the New England coast. Believing they would receive blessings if they took pity on the Pilgrims and assisted them, the local Native Americans showed them how to catch cod and use the parts not eaten as fertilizer. They also introduced the Pilgrims to quahogs, steamers, and lobster, which they eventually ate in desperation. Negotiations with the Native Americans led to our modern-day celebration of Thanksgiving, which would not have occurred if the Pilgrims did not sustain their stomachs and farms with cod. The Pilgrims eventually established fishing stations in Gloucester, Salem, Dorchester, and Marblehead, Massachusetts, and Penobscot Bay, in what is now Maine. Cod was caught using handlines, with larger vessels sailing out to fishing grounds and then sending two men in dories to drop a line in the water. When a cod was caught, it was pulled up by hand. Triangle Trade Fish were cured by drying and salting and marketed in Europe. Then a triangle trade developed that linked  cod to slavery and rum. High-quality cod was sold in Europe, with the colonists purchased European wine, fruit and other products. Then traders then went to the Caribbean, where they sold a low-end cod product called West India cure to feed the burgeoning slave population, and bought sugar, molasses (used to make rum in the colonies), cotton, tobacco, and salt. Eventually, New Englanders also transported slaves to the Caribbean. Cod fishing continued and made the colonies prosperous. Modernization of Fishing In the 1920s-1930s, more sophisticated and effective methods, such as gillnets and draggers were used. Commercial cod catches increased throughout the 1950s. Fish processing techniques also expanded. Freezing techniques and filleting machinery eventually led to the development of fish sticks, marketed as a healthy convenience food. Factory ships started catching fish and freezing it out at sea. Fishing Collapse Technology improved and fishing grounds became more competitive. In the U.S., the Magnuson Act of 1976 prohibited foreign fisheries from entering the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - 200 miles around the U.S. With the absence of foreign fleets, the optimistic U.S. fleet expanded, causing a greater decline in fisheries. Today, New England cod fishermen face strict regulations on their catch. Cod Today The commercial cod catch has decreased greatly since the 1990s due to strict regulations on cod fishing. This has led to an increase in cod populations. According to NMFS, cod stocks on Georges Bank and the Gulf of Maine are rebuilding to target levels, and the Gulf of Maine stock is no longer considered overfished. Still, the cod you eat in seafood restaurants may no longer be Atlantic cod, and fishsticks are now more commonly made of other fish such as pollock. Sources CC Today. 2008. Deconstructing Thanksgiving: A Native American View. (Online). Cape Cod Today. Accessed November 23, 2009. Kurlansky, Mark. 1997. Cod: A Biography of the Fish That Changed the World. Walker and Company, New York. Northeast Fisheries Science Center. Brief History of the Groundfishing Industry of New England (Online). Northeast Fisheries Science Center. Accessed November 23, 2009.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

A Proposal for the Solution to Economic Abuse in Puerto Rico

A Proposal for the Solution to Economic Abuse in Puerto Rico How to Start the Ending of Economic Abuse in Puerto Rico Through the years, Puerto Ricans have been living the era of Economic, Social, and Political Crisis in the island. Most of the society does not pay attention to those situations or to the problems presented. All the three types of crisis connect at one point. Through my proposal I want to explain and expose the cause and effect of two situations that Puerto Rico has and is going through, and those are the increase of the salaries of different city mayors, and the abuse of those who â€Å"need† financial assistance. On February 23, 2009, the Autonomous Municipalities Act was created in order to ensure more control over the different mayors’ decision. It was set out in Article 3.012 of the Act, the concerns dealing with the authorization of increases in salaries of mayors. In this part of the Act, Hernà ¡ndez (2009) states the following: â€Å"A mayors salary will be established depending on the time of its term and the population of his municipality. A mayor, in his/her first term, can earn a salary of three thousand ($ 3,000.00) to five thousand dollars ($ 5,000.00)†¦ In a municipality with a population over one hundred thousand (100,000) occupants, one Mayor re-elected may earn a salary of five thousand ($ 5,000.00) to nine thousand dollars ($ 9,000.00).† A serious problem with this Act is that it provides too much freedom or autonomy to those municipality leaders who do not have the capacity of attending in a correct manner the financial needs. A couple of examples to support this statement are the case of the mayor from Villalba, who was conducted in an investigation for using the money to go on a trip to New Jersey; the increase in the salary of the mayor of Rio Grande, Eduardo Rivera Correa, from $3,900 to $7,500 because he thought that the salary he earned at first was not enough for his living expenses. According to Fonseca (2013), â€Å"the ones who can lower the salary of the mayors are the legislators, and they will not want to confront the mayor of the municipalities. But, how can these mayors say that their salary is not enough for their cost of living when the income per capita of any citizen is of $1,600 to no more than $3,000 monthly.† He does have a point. Most mayors do not have the expenses that most of the cit izens have. If the money they receive was used to better the status of their municipality then it would be understandable that their income would be increased, but the facts do not prove that. In the case of the mayor of Rio Grande, it was found that the municipality had $2.2 million dollars in deficit in 2010-11, after the increase of his income. The mayors are one problem, but the society is another. Puerto Rico provides financial assistance for those who needed. But the question would be, do they truly need that help? One of the most famous helps that the government gives is the Nutritional Assistance Program also known as PAN, which is a family credit card that receives a monthly payment where part of that money can only be used for grocery shopping. Out of 3.7 million people that compose the population, 1.5 million receive this help. Those 640,000 families receive a payment of $150 up to $650 monthly, where 25% of that money can be taken as cash for other expenses. Most of the people that receive this financial assistance live in public housing or as we Puerto Ricans call them the residenciales. In 2009, the Project 894 was presented which established the â€Å"Special Law for Justified Tariffs for Utilities for Public Housing† that presented the ways the different funds would be used for the maintenance of the r esidential. The funds provided $70,438,000 were $68,728,000 came from federal funds, and the other $1,710,000 came from loans and bonds. Most of that money can be used for the improvement of other difficulties like for schools, roads, community programs, etc. Those people, besides receiving the financial assistance they get, they live in the public housing with fixed monthly payments in two appeals: water and electricity. Their monthly payments on water is only $19.71, and on electricity just $30, which in reality most of them do not pay because they put a trap o better known as un pillo de luz y agua which gives them the â€Å"privilege† of having no expenses. All of these problems stated have an effect on the future society, especially on college students and the ones who soon are going to go into college. Although most of the college students receive financial aid like scholarships and grants, most of them try to find a job during their first four years or their bachelor years so they can start saving money for their masters and doctor’s degree. There is the problem. Society today is suffering a crisis of unemployment where the facts state that 30% of the populations of 15 to 24 years old are unemployed because most of the jobs presented today have high requirements that most of them do not have, like having a bachelor’s degree in the specific branch the job asks for. The solutions I want to present are simple but require more effort in the work of those who control the salaries of the mayors, which would be the legislature, and those who control the financial assistance, which would be the Family Department. The solution I provide is that do not approve a request without first making a background investigation of the person. Investigate the cause or reasons the person wants that money, what that person wants it for, how will they use it, etc. If the background investigation presents valid reasons then approve the request, but do not stop there. Keep a watch on that person to see if he/she is truly worthy of maintaining that support or financial assistance. If after a month or two the person shows bad use of the money, then cancel that support and give it to somebody else. But stop wasting money on things, in this case people that do not deserve it because they do not know how to properly use the money they are receiving. Money is not something to give away especially when the country is suffering an economic crisis. The economic abuse that the people, from the poor to the ones in the power, have over the money that the government does not have would be consider the biggest part of the base of the economic problem in Puerto Rico. The government should take better control over the money that is left or that they receive, and learn how to handle it that would benefit the people and the country’s status. But the society needs to learn that they cannot abuse of the money they receive, because they have the â€Å"privilege† of receiving that financial aid when they do not truly need it. There are families out there who NEED that help but they are not among the poor, they are instead hidden among the middle class of the society.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Gender identity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 5

Gender identity - Essay Example According to Devor, in all social categories, gender is the most transparent. The acquisition of gender roles come early in life making it hard to relate them to lessons taught and learned. He states that gender has nothing to do with socialization but, everything to do with nature. He further suggests that our ideas of being male or female are socially related. He clearly states that gender identity is a lifelong process. A story of my body: By Judith Ortiz Cofer. Cofer believes that the body plays a major role in different cultures and contexts. She goes on to reflect on how different societies have interpreted her appearances. To an extent, the story of her life is intertwined in this story. Her story brings out interesting comments on cross-cultural perception and gender. The thesis of this paper is generalized as gender identity. It tries to establish what comprises and defines gender identity. The two authors mentioned above have different perceptions about gender identity but all come to social factors. For instance, according to Devor, gender is determined by the roles one plays while on the other hand, Cofer perceives gender identity to be determined by the cultural standards. All these converge to the society which means that gender is identified by interacting with the society. Devor on Gender identity and generalized and significant others The generalized others acts as a kind of measuring or monitoring device through which people in a society judge their actions in reference to the generalized conceptions on how society members are expected to carry out their actions. In that way, individuals monitor their behavior in reference to what the society considers to be right or wrong. Therefore, these people have standards that censor their behaviors which may be either approved or disapproved by the society. Hence, the tension gives rise to the definition of self (Devor, pp 6) Although all others do play a significant figure in people’s lives, an d not everyone is of equal effect on self-development. Any individual is entitled to be part and parcel of the generalized others, but some people, by the sense of time volume spent in interacting with someone, or through particular interactions, would be more vital in the shaping of individuals’ values. The significant others are more influential in the creation of an individual’s self-image, goals, and one’s ideals. In that way, they weigh disproportionately on an individual’s generalized other. Hence, the individualistic impulses of children are outlined into a form that is socially acceptable by specific people and general pressure to adaption exerted by society members. Gender identity is, therefore, a focal point in the development of self-sense (Devor, pp 6) Cofer on generalized and significant others In contrary to Devor’s opinion on generalized others and its effect on one’s gender identity, Cofer argues in a completely different wa y. Coffer perceives one’s identity to be influenced by various aspects the body by different communities. He argues that different communities in their cultures define gender identity differently. For instance, Coffer, while she was in America skin color, had a diverse opinion depending on where one was. The Italian (butcher) at the supermarket discriminated her as she was darker compared to them while on the other hand, the Latinos considered her to be colored.

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Report to the presentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Report to the presentation - Essay Example From the two aspects, success is assured for your presentation (Tolley & Wood 2011). This paper, therefore, seeks to compare two group’s case studies for their presentations. For case study six presentations, the presentation is about the role of the government while case study seven, talks about Ethics and globalization. The paper seeks to compare case studies’ six and seven. For a well written report presentation, it is essential that the group members do a thorough research on the subject matter. The group members should, therefore, read lots of sources to gather information concerning the subject. The reason for this is because having the ability to present a subject area with confidence affects the audience directly. In turn, this gives the audience an impression that will capture their attention. For instance, for case study six, the topic the role of government is clear and readers can easily tell what the presentation is all about. Similarly, case study seven’s topic is also clear and easily communicates the information to its audience. For this reason, both groups have shown strength in explicitly making the subject matter of their presentations simple for the audience to have an idea of what is to be presented. Both case studies discuss ethical issues and leaves questions on h ow to solve the ethical issues. The aspect of researching for a simple and easily understandable subject is essential in capturing the audience’s attention. For both presentations, the members did a lot of research, and this could only be achieved through teamwork and a high level of cooperation (Tolley & Wood 2011). Teamwork and cooperation are vital components that ensure successful presentations, and this is portrayed in case studies one and seven. Another similarity between the case study six and seven is that they leave the reader with an open mind of making an ethical decision in solving the problem at hand. However, both case studies

Friday, January 24, 2020

Essay on Hector as the Ideal Homeric Man of Homers Iliad

Hector as the Ideal Homeric Man of Homer's Iliad        Ã‚  Ã‚   Homer's Iliad enthralls readers with its’ valiant heroes who fight for the glory of Greece. The Iliad, however, is not just a story of war; it is also a story of individuals. Through the characters' words and actions, Homer paints portraits of petulant Achilles and vain Agamemnon, doomed Paris and Helen, loyal Patroclus, tragic Priam, versatile Odysseus, and the whole cast of Gods. Ironically, the most complete character in the epic is Hector, enemy hero, and Prince of Troy. Hector is in many ways the ideal Homeric man: he is a man of compassion and piety, a man of integrity and bravery, a man who loves his family, and above all, a man who understands and fulfills his social obligations under the stringent rules of the heroic code.    Hector, returning to the city from a series of ferocious setbacks at the hands of the Acheans, is introduced as a man of compassion and piety. His behavior as a hero and as a son is markedly different from the behavior exhibited by Agamemnon and Achilles. When he enters the Scaean Gates, he is immediately surrounded by "the wives and daughters of Troy...asking about their sons, brothers, friends and husbands" (VI, 150-151). The very fact that the women approach Hector, intimidating as he must be in his bloodstained armor, is revealing. Up to this point, the women in the story have been silent victims of the raging tempers of the men around them. In contrast, the women of Troy display confidence in Hector's character by approaching him without fear. Though he himself is exhausted and discouraged, Hector patiently responds to the anguished women, demonstrating the compassion he feels for his fighting men and their families. So many ... ...ties serve as a foil against the cruelty, arrogance, and self-indulgence that cripples some of the other heroes in the Iliad. To the Greeks of Homer's time, Hector stands out as a symbol of what might have been... and a model for what could be.    Works Cited and Consulted: Clarke, Howard. Homer's Readers: A Historical Introduction to the Iliad and the Odyssey. Newark, Del.: University of Delaware Press, 1981. Goodrich, Norma. Myths of the hero. New York: Orion Press, 1962. Homer: Iliad. Trans. Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin Books, 1990. Nagy, Gregory. Concepts of the Greek Hero. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979. Richardson, Nicholas. The Iliad : A Commentary. Vol. VI: books 21-24. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993. Segal, Charles. Heroes and Gods in the Odyssey. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.   

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Use of “n” Word in Huck Finn

Others debate that it makes people uncomfortable and prevents them from reading this great piece of American literature. The people who believe that the original text should be edited, focus their discontent on the racial tone of the language. The fact that the racial insult makes many people feel uncomfortable, is one of the main reasons they feel that way. In the article by Philip Rails, the scholar Alan Cribber says, â€Å"It's a shame that one word should be a barrier between a marvelous reading experience and a lot of readers†Ã¢â‚¬Ëœ(Rails 1).That Is exactly what people feel the word â€Å"Niger is In Huckleberry Finn. It acts as a barrier for people who find It uncomfortable to read, and prevents them from comprehending the writing. In the article â€Å"Houck Finn goes clean In new publication† by Analyzer, an English teacher expresses why she doesn't think Its k to use the word. When you're using slurs – racial slurs, gender slurs, homosexuality slurs â⠂¬â€œ I think you're victimizing people† (Layer 3). It is very true that blacks in America could get offended if you say the word in a classroom or they read it in the novel.It probably reminds them of the hard times their ancestors went through or puts them into stereotype that they don't think they belong in. It is very easy for people to become uncomfortable with an insult like the word in Houck Finn. The English teacher in Layer's article also says, remember when I first read it in 1986 and I was thinking, ‘Oh, wow. The racial slur Is problematic† (Layer 2). Like many people, she feels as though â€Å"slave† would be more acceptable. It would make people feel more at ease and able to actually read the book without a distracting word.Teachers definitely do not want their students to be Immature about the n-word, especially if there are blacks in the classroom. If the students wouldn't be mature about it, it would be nice to have another choice. Readers, s tudents and teachers also should have a choice in what they want to read. If they have the book with in it and don't want it, they should be able to choose what they want. As long as they are comfortable and do not distract or offend the reader than the point of the book is shown. While the reasons for replacing the slur are reasonable, people are still tryingly against censoring Houck Finn.They feel as though removing the insult would compensate what had happened in the past. The way we treated the slaves was extremely harsh and this Is a way America can remember as well as refrain from making a mistake Like that In the future. Another reason readers don't want to censor the novel Is the fact that they are censoring a major novel. In the article â€Å"Why a new edition of Houck Finn Is†¦ † By Alexandra Petri, Petri discusses her displeasure with the censorship of the novel. She says, â€Å"This is like turning Death of a Salesman into room Heart of Darkness – or all the darkness† (Petri).Even Mark Twain himself said about the difference between â€Å"slave† and â€Å"Niger† is â€Å"the difference between the lightning bug and the lightning† (Controversy as new edition†¦ ). If they censor American literature, what will be next? Many argue that they don't know where the removing of all things bad will stop. Great deals of readers think that the racial slur is crucial to how the readers interpret the whole story. In the article, â€Å"Houck Finn goes clean†¦ † An English professor explains how important it is to be shaken and feel uncomfortable with the word â€Å"Niger† (Layer).It depicts the time period in which it happened accurately, and though it wasn't, and still isn't, something that is acceptable, it still brings out the point of the novel. Mark Twain put the word in there for a purpose, not Just to do it. He uses it to bring out some of the satire. Petri says in her article that reg ardless of the fact that slavery was in full throttle, â€Å"Mark Twain was still able to use satire to show how wrong it was† (Petri). Granted, the usage of the word â€Å"Niger† was normal in that time period, but now the satire Twain uses seems al the more relevant.His satire is still shown to this very day. Also, the characters would not have said â€Å"slave†, it is more realistic if Houck was to say â€Å"Niger† because, to him, that's what a slave was. It was completely normal, whether we think it was or not. All in all, the choice is up to the readers. If the reader feels that the â€Å"n† word is too offensive to read, the option to read a different word should be open to them. We can't distract people from the meaning of the story if they get disgruntled and embarrassed.No one has the right to deny someone fondness when reading a book. The novel is partially about striving for freedom. While freedom comes with a price, shouldn't everyone have the freedom to choose which way they want to read something? However, it is also important to know that the word was there in the first place. It is true that the story could lose its meaning by taking out what makes the satire so uncomfortable. The word is an important part of the story, but if people understand it than why are they not allowed to enjoy the piece that people admire so much?

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Feminist theories dont add to the study of international law. Discuss. - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2148 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Feminism is a political movement that seeks to overturn gender inequalities between men and women (Blunt and Wills, 2000: p. 90). It is concerned with the power relations that influence not only how individuals relate to each other, but how spheres of life are gendered in particular ways. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Feminist theories dont add to the study of international law. Discuss." essay for you Create order Feminism is therefore, inherently linked to international law and is one of the ways in which it can be theorised. While the international legal system may be broadening in scope, it remains narrow in perspective. In particular, the boundaries and limits of international law can be seen from a critical and feminist perspective. Feminist legal theory is comprised of two broad strands. The first is to analyse and critically interrogate the implicit and masculinist assumptions of international law in theory and in practice. The second is to reform international law such that it might better serve the interests of women across the world. It has been argued that feminist theories have nothing to add to the study of international law (Hunter-Williams, 2009). However, despite this criticism, feminist theories have much to contribute to the study of international law. The importance of feminist theories in international law can be seen through the inadequacies of traditional theories of law and also in the application of feminist theories in areas such as human trafficking and refugee law. The absence of women in international law has distorted the disciplines boundaries and produced a narrow and inadequate jurisprudence that has, among other things, legitimised the unequal position of women around the world rather than challenged it (Charlesworth and Chinkin, 2000: p.1). Feminist theory acts to challenge this situation and thus offers a significant contribution to the study of international law. Traditional theories of international law have seriously failed to address the situation of women worldwide (Charlesworth and Chinkin, 2000: p.25). Feminist theories, however, contribute to our understanding of international law and the global inequality of women. As such, the remainder of this essay will refute the claim that feminist theories have nothing to add to the study of international law. It should be stressed that there is no single school of feminist jurispruden ce and the categories do overlap in some respects. Liberal feminists typically accept the language and aims of the existing domestic legal order. Charlesworth and Chinkin explain how liberal feminists insist that the law fulfil its promise of objective regulation upon which principled decision-making is based (2000: p.39). Their primary goal is to achieve equality of treatment between women and men in public areas, such as political participation and representation, and equal access to and equality within paid employment, market services and education (Charlesworth and Chinkin, 2000: p.39). Liberal feminism therefore, has something to add to international law in that it seeks to achieve equality between men and women. Charlesworth and Chinkin define cultural feminism to be concerned with the identification and rehabilitation of qualities and perspectives identified as particular to women (2000: p.40). Epistemologically, it is a standpoint theory in that it emphasises the impor tance of knowledge based upon experience and asserts that womens subjugated position allows them to formulate more complete and accurate accounts of nature and social life (Harding, 1986: pp.24-29). In this area, the work of Carol Gilligan is particularly relevant. Gilligan investigates whether there is a distinctively feminine way of thinking or solving problems (Gilligan, 1982). She identifies a different voice which bases decisions on the values of caring and connection in contrast to a style of decision-making based on abstract logic (Gilligan, 1982: p.24). The former is associated with women and the later with men (Charlesworth and Chinkin, 2000: p.40). Gilligans work has been useful to the critical analysis of legal reasoning, which lays claim to abstract, objective decision making. Accordingly, if legal reasoning simply reproduces a masculine type of reasoning, its objectivity and authority are reduced (Charlesworth, et al., 1991: p.615). This illustrates the contribution of cultural feminism to international legal theory. Radical feminism explains womens inequality as the product of domination of women by men. Catherine Mackinnon has been a consistent exponent of this view. Her view is that the law keeps women out and down (Mackinnon, 1987: p.205) by preserving a hierarchical system based on gender and sex. Radical feminism has paid attention to the public/private dichotomies that also feature in liberal thought. The public realm of the workplace, the law, economics, politics and intellectual and cultural life is regarded as the natural province of men; while the private world of the home, the hearth and children is seen as the appropriate domain of women (Charlesworth et al., 1991: p.626). This dichotomy has led to a debate amongst feminist scholars over whether this distinction often operates to obscure or legitimate mens domination of women. This dispute could be seen to weaken radical feminist theory. However, the awareness it raises of the domi nation of women by men and particularly the hierarchical system of international law outweighs its flaws. Feminist campaigns have not only been restricted to women from the Global North. The term third world feminisms refers to approaches developed by women from the Global South and women of colour in the Global North. These approaches explore the differences among, as well as between, men and women. For instance, Alice Walker coined the term womanism (1984, quoted in Blunt and Wills, 2000: p. 114) because many black feminists prefer the term womanism to feminism, as the later has been largely white and largely uncritical of its whiteness. Charlesworth et al. assess third world feminisms in terms of the notion of a different voice (1991: p.615) in international law. The authors argue that third world states have challenged international law as either disadvantageous to them or inadequate to their needs (Charlesworth et al.: p.616). However, they also suggest that although the cha llenge of the different voice of the developing nations to international law has been fundamental, it has focused on disparities in economic position and has not questioned the silence of half the worlds population in the creation of international law, or the unequal impact of rules of international law on women (1991: p. 618). Despite the limitations of third world feminisms, it still provides an important contribution to international law in that it highlights the application of Western feminist theories to third world communities and societies (Charlesworth and Chinkin, 2000: p.46). The importance of the contribution of feminist theories to international law can be seen in practice in relation to human trafficking. In December 2000, over 80 countries signed the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (the Trafficking Protocol), (Doezema, 2002: p.20). The Trafficking Protocol works to conceptualise an interna tional problem; it established the first definition of trafficking in international law and put in place a set of measures for international co-operation to address this problem (Sullivan, 2003: p.68). The Trafficking Protocol defines trafficking in persons as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion (United Nations, 2003: p.2). Trafficking in women for the sex industry is highly profitable for those running the trade. The UN estimated that 4 million people were trafficked in 1998, producing a profit of USD 7 billion for criminal groups (Sassen, 2002). Feminists and feminist organisations were particularly involved in discussions about the text of the Trafficking Protocol (Sullivan, 2003: pp.67-68). Feminist lobbying regarding the Protocol was split into two camps espousing differing views on prostitution. One group, the Human Rights Caucus, viewed prostitution as legitimate labour. The other, represented by the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW), considered all forms of prostitution to be a violation of womens human rights. Differences about the possibilities of distinguishing between free and forced prostitution divided feminists. Consequently, the definition of trafficking incorporated in the Protocol has some important weaknesses. Furthermore, the debate amongst feminists on this topic has fuelled claims that feminist theories have nothing to add to the study of international law (Hunter-Williams, 2009). However, the Protocol does have its strengths. The Trafficking Protocol has had significant worldwide impact on the status of women. As such feminist theory should be seen as making an important contribution to the study of international law. A further area in which feminist theories are viewed as important in international law is that of refugee law. Carving out territory for refugee women within mainstream legal realms has been one way t hat feminists have successfully redressed their invisibility within refugee discourse (Oswin, 2001). Efforts have largely focused on eliminating the male bias within the legal definition of refugee in order to incorporate the experiences of refugee women into refugee status determination processes. Emphasis has also been placed upon the recognition of violence against women as a ground of persecution. Those feminists who have sought to incorporate womens experiences into refugee law can claim success on a variety fronts. For instance, the UNHCRs Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women, adopted in 1991, emphasises the fact that gender-based persecution exists and should be recognised by refugee-receiving states as a basis for asylum (Oswin, 2001: p.350). In this way, feminist efforts have been instrumental in putting refugee womens experiences on the agenda of international refugee law. However, it could be proposed that feminist theories have not had a substantial involvement in refugee law as feminists have only been granted a small portion of what is already extremely finite territory (Oswin, 2001: p.347). A final example of the significant impact that feminist theory has had on the study of international law is that of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325. SC1325 is an eighteen-point resolution that develops an agenda for women, peace and security. It calls for the prosecution of crimes against women, increased protection of women and girls during war, the appointment of more women to the UN peacekeeping operations and field missions and an increase in womens participation in decision making processes at the regional, national and international level (Cohn, et al., 2004: p.130). The resolution was unanimously adopted by the Security Council on 31 October 2000. SC1325 is highly significant because it is the first time the Security Council has devoted an entire session to debating womens experiences in conflict and post-conflict situat ions. The resolution was influenced by feminist campaigners and the case highlights the growing influence of feminist theories on international law. Women are on the margins of the international legal system (Charlesworth and Chinkin, 2000: p.48). Charlesworth and Chinkin comment that: Women form over half the worlds population, but their voices, in all their variety, have been thoroughly obscured by and within the international legal order (2000: p.1). Feminist excursions into international law have been reproved for criticising the male-centredness of international law while at the same time invoking the international legal order to improve the situation for women (Charlesworth and Chinkin, 2000: p.59). The implication of this is that feminists forfeit the right to invoke international law if they point out its biases (Charlesworth and Chinkin, 2000: p.59). Such claims have led to assertions that feminist theories have nothing to add to the study of international law. However, the development of feminist jurisprudence in recent years has made a rich and fruitful contribution to legal theory (Charlesworth, et al., 1991: p.613). This is highlighted by the inadequacies of traditional theories of international law, and the important contribution of feminist ideas both in theory and in practice, such as in the Trafficking Protocol and refugee law. Consequently, feminist theory can be used to reshape the way womens lives are understood in an international context, thus altering the boundaries of international law (Charlesworth and Chinkin, 2000: p.337). Bibliography Blunt, A. and Wills, J. (2000) Dissident Geographies: An Introduction to Radical Ideas and Practice, Harlow: Prentice Hall. 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(2009) Feminist theories have nothing to add to the Study of International Law. Available at: https://simonhunterwilliams.wordpress.com/2009/3/16/feminist-theories-have-nothing-to-add-to-the-study-of-international-law/ Mackinnon, C. (1987) Feminism unmodified, Boston, MA: Harvard University Press. Oswin, N. (2001) Right Spaces, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 3(3), pp.347-364. Sassen, S. (2002) Womens Burden: Counter-Geographies of Globalization and the Feminization of Survival, Nordic Journal of International Law, 71, pp.255-274. Sullivan, B. (2003) Trafficking in Women, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 5(1), pp.67-91. United Nations (2003) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, available at https://www .ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/protocoltraffic.pdf.